History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are critical for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to multiple-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a critical part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequenced Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System / 390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM's System / 360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called "Bus architecture". The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The "channels" are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. And so are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

Healthy Lifestyle in a Modern World

During the recent years many people have started doing exercise, taking yoga classes and also following strict diet in many countries. The reasons behind these activities are many, like work-stress, people suffering from diabetes, people taking lots of fats in their food and due to the pollution and the ongoing urbanization. Most of the people living in the cities suffer from heavy pollution due to heavy intakes of carbon monoxide in their bodies. Due to this heavy intake there are many side effects involved in this process.

Most of the people are also addicted to smoking and alcohol, recent studies by an organization out of 100 people 60 percent drink significantly more than is healthy. Also in most of the countries even the percentage of the female population abusing alcohol is increasing. Due to this many of the doctors suggest people take regular exercises and also play sports in their leisure time. In the last ten years heart diseases has increased enormously from 35% to 70%. In recent years most of the children are born with diseases, a result of their parents poor health and lifestyle. So in these times it is necessary to follow some rules so that our health as well as our younger generations will be healthy.

Keeping healthy is nothing but keeping our body clean with healthy habits like taking regular exercise. First of all a regular jog of 2 km is enough for an individual of an average age. During the school days till college everyone is involved in one or other sport, but when people find a job they forget about health and they soon become busy in their work. One should consult their doctor every 3-4 months for a regular checkup’s. They should not be stressed – if they find stress they should take yoga classes every day, so that their blood pressure will be normal. Otherwise that would lead them to hyper blood pressure or hypo, which may lead to heart disease. Most of the corporate companies in USA as well as rest of the world are employing dietitians, physiotherapists, and also good doctors to take care of their employees.

The next thing I want to discuss is the diet because the intake food which we are taking is responsible for all the fats, carbohydrates,proteins and necessary enzymes which will be useful for the energy conversion or utilization in the human body. We should follow the diet very strictly by avoiding the junk food available in the market. A recent survey states that most of the people fall ill by consumption of junk food. A food with little fat is advisable because by taking more fat content the fat will be accumulated in the veins and arteries in the human body which result in high blood pressure which may lead to heart disease. In order to reduce the fats in the human body we should take less oil or cheese or butter in our food there by controlling the fats in the human body. Regular exercise will be helpful to control the fat in the human body.

By playing sports it will be a good exercise in the human body. Swimming is also a good sport. We should maintain our body weight according to our height. There we can reduce our health problems to most of the extent. I conclude my discussion to the above topic by saying that a regular exercise or yoga and a strict diet and playing sports and regular check ups we can keep our body healthy after all there is an old saying “Health is Wealth”.

Talking Cars From Movies and TV

Surely, at some point in your life, you have owned a car and rented that it would come to life in an instant. There are some iconic cars from movies and TV that make us have car envy and hope that with a push of a button we could be in the Batmobile. Here are a few of the top iconic cars from the movies or TV and their features.

First off, Pixar's film "Cars". This movie follows Lightening McQueen (played by Owen Wilson) while he tries to make it back from the run down town of Radiator Spring in hopes to win the Piston Cup. There are many other characters that we meet during McQueen's journey, Mater the loveable tow-truck (played by Larry the Cable Guy), Sally Carrera (Bonnie Hunt), and former Piston Cup winner Doc Hudson (played by Paul Newman). This race car is a new rookie for the races and can reach extreme high speeds. He has some interesting features that model actual race cars, like having stickers instead of headlights. However, this car talks, has eyes, and has a winning personality.

Next on our list is KITT from Knight Rider. KITT, Knight Industries Three Thousand, is a sporty 1982 Pontiac Trans Am and has an artificial intelligent computer installed that allows it to help Michael Knight (David Hasselhoff) fight crime. KITT (William Daniels) has a special body armor that protects it from just about any type of firearm and can resist extreme heat. The super computer on wheels of course could talk, but not only that, he was fluent in Spanish and French, and even has a variety of different accents. This really was the best car ever for any human crime fighter since it could talk, smell, hear, could examine the area, had an array of weapons, had different modes like silent mode, and of course he could still function as a regular car . Pardon me, an awesome car.

Herbie is a very iconic car which lands it in the next slot on our list. This old school Volkswagon Beetle race car actually in habits the human soul who made him named Herbie. Herbie can function just fine on its own like any normal car: driving itself, reasoning, thinking, knowing the difference between good and evil. Ok, so normal cars do not do that last one, or any of those. But, Herbie does race and help its owners survive different situations and helping good demand over evil.

Some people can be obsessive about a car, but what about a car obsessed with it's owner. That is the case with the car Chrstine. In the movie, Christine was portrayed as a 1958 Plymouth Fury who was obsessed with her owner Arnie (Keith Gordon). Christen takes it upon herself to find those who insult, hurt, or attempt to separate her and her love, Arnie. She can not talk like some of the other cars like KITT of Lightening McQueen, but like Herbie, it's as if her soul is trapped inside the car. And, what a soul it is. Christen will wreak havoc to anyone who does her Arnie wrong, no matter how much it may hurt her. Hell hath no fury like a woman, um, car scorned.

How Do Hemorrhoids Affect Your Overall Health?

Most people are too embarrassed to tell their doctors about their hemorrhoids. Also called piles, hemorrhoids are masses that accumulate around the rectum. Due to straining or pressure, veins protrude from thin membranes, forming pouches. These can be so painful and irritating that even normal tasks can become stressful ordeals. What is the impact of hemorrhoids to your overall health?

Internal hemorrhoids are those formed inside the rectum, and sometimes extend outside the anus when dilated. External hemorrhoids are lumps that can be seen by the naked eye. Digital rectal exams (DRE) administered by doctors can detect lumps that aren’t visible, but a common symptom of hemorrhoids involve streaks of blood in the stool or toilet paper.

Hemorrhoids can be hereditary in nature. If you have family members with the same problem, then yours is probably genetic. Frequent diarrhea and constipation can increase pressure on the main vein leading to your lower extremities. Straining can impede normal circulation in the body, which weakens the walls of the veins, forming hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids, both internal and external, are painful. Prolonged standing and sitting can cause irritation, pain and even inflammation in the affected areas. It is uncomfortable and can distract from work. Worse, there are instances when hemorrhoids can really take a toll on your health.

There are times where a blood clot may form and cause severe pain in the area. This condition requires immediate intervention. Since hemorrhoids can bleed, anemia may also be a problem. Bowel movements, and scratching can lead to severe blood loss in some cases. Untreated anemia will result in fatigue, poor nutrition and body weakness – all of which can get in the way of your work even further.

As stated before, hemorrhoids can also protrude outside the body. When this happens, there’s a tendency that blood supply may be cut off. This condition is called strangulated hemorrhoids, which can lead to tissue death. Infection is the primary concern when this happens.

Hemorrhoids require immediate medical intervention. Topical creams/ointments and painkillers may be prescribed to numb the pain. Your doctor may also suggest soaking the affected area in warm water to relax the area and prevent irritation.

Most hemorrhoids are mild in nature, and sometimes go away on their own. But if you don’t pay close attention, they may lead to complications. Always keep in mind that prevention is better than cure, so keep moving, get some exercise, and eat only the right stuff.